Glossary of Domain Name Disputes

The area title dispute resolution program was intended to be person-friendly, but this aim has not constantly been obtained. 1 of the most important obstacles to efficient accessibility has been the jargon that has grown up close to the process. To efficiently negotiate the program you ought to require to know the variations in between registrants, registrars and registries you have to not confuse your UDRP with your ACPA and you will will need to be able to select in between NAF and WIPO must it become required.

Abusive registration:

This is a key concept beneath the Nominet Dispute Resolution Policy there is no strategy of an abusive registration below the UDRP (whilst see the entry on terrible religion). An abusive registration is a single which was registered or obtained or has subsequently been employed “in a method which took unfair advantage of or was unfairly detrimental to the Complainant’s Rights”.


See the entry on the Anti-Cybersquatting Safety Act.


ADR stands for substitute dispute resolution. In the domain title dispute context, arbitration proceedings are sometimes identified as ADR proceedings, specially in EURid documentation.

Substitute dispute resolution:

See the entry on ADR.

Anti-Cybersquatting Protection Act:

A US regulation enacted on 29 November 1999. It amended the Lanham Act – the centrepiece of US trade mark laws – and varieties portion 43d. The ACPA may well – in specific situations – be applied to your scenario by the US courts, even if you’re not a citizen of or centered in the US.


Area title arbitration is the contractually-based mostly system of dispute resolution made use of to figure out disputes about the appropriate possession of area names. It is distinct from standard arbitration: a advanced procedure of personal dispute resolution proceedings usually employed to ascertain worldwide contractual disputes.

Terrible religion:

Beneath the UDRP a successful complainant need to demonstrate that the area identify was registered or is staying used in lousy religion. The notion of poor faith is not defined in the UDRP nonetheless 4 examples of circumstances which are proof of poor faith are provided, and I have (crudely) summarised these below. Initial, circumstances indicating that the respondent intended to offer the area name to the complainant are proof of negative faith. 2nd, so-identified as “blocking” registrations are obvious of terrible religion, furnishing they are aspect of a pattern of this sort of registrations. Third, proof of poor religion may perhaps be found in registrations supposed to disrupt a competitor’s organization. Eventually, situations indicating the professional use of a area identify which results in a probability of confusion in between the area title and the complainant’s mark are evidence of bad faith. The record is non-exhaustive.


A person of the therapies permitted less than the UDRP, Nominet Policy, and the .eu Regulation, but seldom utilized. The normal remedy is transfer. Cancellation is also known as revocation.


This stands for region code prime level area. Illustrations of ccTLDs contain .us, .united kingdom and .de.


The particular person building a grievance by using a domain identify arbitration assistance about a domain name registration (analogous to a plaintiff or claimant in litigation).


The doc placing out the complainant’s circumstance. There are specific principles about what ought to go into a grievance, and the duration of grievances is strictly confined under some regimes. Generally, a criticism would include references to the provisions of the appropriate plan doc, a description of the factual circumstances of the scenario, arguments as to why the circumstance should be found in the complaint’s favour, and references to preceding decisions which support the arguments.


The exercise of improperly registering or attaining area names in which other people have rights.


The domain title dispute equal of a court judgment. There is no formal procedure of precedent in area identify arbitration. Nevertheless, the arbitration bodies are loath to allow a variety of interpretations of their procedures, and in apply panelists will not normally depart from well-reasoned earlier choices (or at the very least that they know about).

Area title holder:

Another title for a registrant.


The physique administering the .eu area identify. The EURid dispute resolution assistance is furnished by the Prague-primarily based Arbitration Court docket attached to the Financial Chamber of the Czech Republic and Agricultural Chamber of the Czech Republic.


The Nominet expression for panelists – the “judges” of the area title dispute resolution procedure. Most industry experts are practising intellectual home legal professionals.

Federal Trademark Dilution Act:

US laws furnishing a highly effective cure for the proprietors of famed trade marks. The FTDA was enacted in 1996. It was the initial statutory modification of the US Lanham Act to deal with the worries offered by the world wide web. Its most important impact was to expand the protection obtainable to popular marks by prohibiting dilution.


See the entry on the Federal Trademark Dilution Act.


This stands for generic prime level domain. Illustrations of gTLDs contain .com, .internet and .org. Compare ccTLDs.


The Net Corporation for Assigned Names and Quantities (ICANN) administers the area title technique. It has promulgated no significantly less than 10 distinct insurance policies relating to dispute resolution. The most crucial policy is the Uniform Domain Title Dispute Resolution Coverage (the UDRP). The UDRP will have to be study in conjunction with the Policies for Uniform Area Name Dispute Resolution Plan (the Policies). ICANN’s other dispute resolution guidelines relate, for occasion, to specific sorts of domain name with specific registration necessities (e.g. .professional or .biz), the .data sunrise period of time, and disputes with registrars around area name transfers.


See the entry on Internationalised Area Names.

Internationalised Area Names:

A area identify likely containing non-ASCII figures, for illustration a domain name consisting of Arabic or Hebrew characters.

Genuine Passions:

To assist defeat a grievance built below the URDP, a Respondent really should argue that he or she has legitimate pursuits in the domain title in dispute. A non-exhaustive listing of strategies of demonstrating a legit fascination is set out in the UDRP. Initial, pre-dispute use of (or preparations for the use of) the area name or a title corresponding to the area title “in relationship with a bona fide featuring of goods or products and services” may possibly constitute a legitimate curiosity. Second, you or your enterprise becoming typically recognized by the area title may well constitute a legitimate interest. Third, a genuine non-professional or truthful use of the area identify may perhaps represent a genuine curiosity, offering that use does not misleadingly divert customers of the complainant or tarnish the trade mark at challenge.


The National Arbitration Forum is a major discussion board for the resolution of domain title disputes. NAF focuses upon North American domain identify disputes. Arbitration proceedings using NAF are governed by the UDRP, the Policies and NAF’s Supplemental Rules. NAF also delivers non-UDRP dispute resolution solutions, for case in point for disputes about .us and .little area names.


Mediation is a type of choice dispute resolution where the parties to a dispute check out to agree a settlement to the dispute with the help of a skilled facilitator. The Nominet Dispute Resolutions Services presents a free mediation service.

Mutual jurisdiction:

This strategy is applied in the UDRP and other guidelines to refer to the jurisdictions in which formal court proceedings should really be done in the event that area title arbitration proceedings do not create a satisfactory end result. Underneath the UDRP it means possibly the courts of the nation in which the relevant registrar is primarily based or the courts in the state which the registrant statements to be dependent in its WHOIS entry.


The Nominet dispute resolution service offers with disputes involving .united kingdom domain names (like .internet.united kingdom, .ltd.british isles,, .co.british isles, .org.british isles and Nominet does not use the UDRP as an alternative, disputes are determined below Nominet’s own Plan and Treatment.


One or 3 panelists ordinarily represent the panel.


The judges of the area title dispute resolution method. Several are practising mental assets legal professionals numerous NAF panelists are retired US judges.


Legalese this means a individual who is associated in lawful proceedings as a litigant. In the context of domain identify arbitration proceedings, that usually means involvement as possibly a complainant or a respondent.

Passing off:

The English-regulation tort of passing off has been inherited numerous other prevalent law jurisdictions. It is from time to time referred to (with some carelessness) as “unregistered trade mark infringement”. The registration and use of a domain name can represent passing off.


The UDRP and the Nominet Coverage are the most significant files in UDRP and Nominet arbitrations respectively. The equal policies in .eu arbitrations are contained in the Regulation.


The Nominet Technique incorporates the specific policies governing the conduct of Nominet domain name arbitrations – for example, time restrictions for action.


The corporation or organisation that administers a area identify dispute resolution company. Some systems of area name dispute resolution, this sort of as the UDRP system, have much more than 1 provider some others, this sort of as the .eu system, have only a person service provider.


A organization or organisation that is accredited by a registry to sign-up area names.


The individual that “owns” (i.e. has the contractual suitable to use) the area identify. The registrant of a area identify can be uncovered making use of a WHOIS support.

Registration settlement:

The arrangement entered into among a registrar and a registrant on the registration or acquisition of a domain title. The registration settlement stipulates the fashion of dispute resolution, and consequently underpins the total domain identify dispute resolution method.

Registration authority:

See Registry.


The organisation administering the domain name extension in problem. For example, Nominet it the .uk registry and EURid is the .eu registry. In some cases named the registration authority.


In the context of .eu domains, this implies Commission Regulation (EC) No 874/2004 of 28 April 2004 laying down public coverage guidelines about the implementation and functions of the .eu top degree domain and the principles governing registration.


The document in Nominet proceedings containing the complainant’s arguments in response to the respondent’s arguments in the response. It really should not in typical incorporate new arguments unrelated to factors elevated in the reaction. There is no equivalent in the UDRP or .eu methods.


The doc made up of the respondent’s arguments in response to the criticism.


A individual responding to a official complaint about his or her domain name registration (analogous to a defendant in legal proceedings).

Reverse area name hijacking:

The incorrect use of area name arbitration proceedings to dispossess a registrant of his or her domain identify.


See cancellation.


In Nominet proceedings, a complainant ought to present that he or she has rights in regard of a name or mark which is similar or very similar to the area title at situation. The Nominet Plan presents that legal rights “contains, but is not constrained to, rights enforceable below English law. However, a complainant will be not able to depend on legal rights in a title or term which is wholly descriptive of the complainant’s organization”. The most critical rights are registered trade marks and, in English legislation, the ideal to convey proceedings for the tort of passing off.


The Regulations for UDRP dietary supplement the UDRP by itself. The Czech Arbitration Court also has a established of guidelines for .eu disputes.

Supplemental Rules:

Beneath the UDRP, both equally NAF and the WIPO Mediation and Arbitration Heart situation their personal supplemental guidelines, which supplement the UDRP and the Guidelines for UDRP, and include for illustration provisions about the expenses of arbitration. The Czech Arbitration Court also has a set of supplemental policies for .eu disputes.

Trade Marks Act 1994:

The centrepiece of the United kingdom trade mark legislation regime, the 1994 Act has been regularly amended, generally to mirror developments in European legislation.


The most vital remedy in domain title arbitration proceedings. If the panel determines that a complaint has been designed out, the domain name will typically be transferred from the respondent to the complainant.


The observe of improperly registering domain names which are incredibly comparable to names in which other individuals have legal rights. A kind of cybersquatting.


The Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Coverage promulgated by ICANN governing most disputes about generic best amount domains, and several disputes about place code best level domains. The UDRP must be read through in conjunction with the Principles for Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Plan.


Listing company for seeking up names and other particulars of area title registrants.


The Planet Intellectual House Firm (WIPO) is an company of the United Nations. WIPO’s Arbitration and Mediation Middle was the 1st dispute resolution provider accredited by ICANN. Arbitration proceedings applying WIPO are ruled by the UDRP, the Procedures and WIPO’s Supplemental Regulations. It is – together with NAF – a single of the “huge two” companies of dispute resolution providers below the UDRP.

This glossary is meant to assist you get to grips with the jargon if you need much more facts, make sure you visit the Web Library of Cybersquatting and Domain Identify Disputes at [